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Table 2 6-min walk test at baseline and at end of the study for all participants

From: Efficacy of a novel formulation of L-Carnitine, creatine, and leucine on lean body mass and functional muscle strength in healthy older adults: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study

  L-Carnitine-combination L-Carnitine Placebo P ValueΔ P Value¤
Mean + SD (n)
Within Group P Value
Mean + SD (n)
Within Group P Value
Mean + SD (n)
Within Group P Value
Meters Walked in Six Minutes (m)
 Baseline (Week 0) 432 ± 109 (14) 458 ± 127 (11) 526 ± 80 (14)
 Visit 2 (Week 8) 462 ± 113 (14) 444 ± 119 (11) 530 ± 100 (14)
 Change from Baseline to Week 8 30 ± 70 (14)
P = 0.126
−14 ± 107 (11)
P = 0.617
3 ± 69 (14)
P = 0.704
0. 292 0.856
Out of Breath Score Before Walking
 Baseline (Week 0) 0.21 ± 0.80 (14) 0.091 ± 0.302 (11) 0.00 ± 0.00 (14)
 Visit 2 (Week 8) 0.036 ± 0.134 (14) 0.045 ± 0.151 (11) 0.000 ± 0.000 (14)
 Change from Baseline to Week 8 −0.18 ± 0.67 (14)
P = 1.000‡
−0.14 ± 0.64 (11)
P = 0.590‡
0.00 ± 0.00 (14)
P = 1.000‡
0. 295 0.353
Out of Breath Score After Walking
 Baseline (Week 0) 1.07 ± 2.16 (14) 0.55 ± 0.79 (11) 1.04 ± 0.91 (14)
 Visit 2 (Week 8) 1.00 ± 1.79 (14) 0.41 ± 0.58 (11) 0.61 ± 0.56 (14)
 Change from Baseline to Week 8 −0.07 ± 0.87 (14)
P = 0.730‡
−0.14 ± 0.64 (11)
P = 0.590‡
−0.43 ± 0.70 (14)
P =0.044‡
0. 234 0.222
Change in Out of Breath Score After Walking
 Baseline (Week 0) 0.86 ± 1.60 (14) 0.45 ± 0.65 (11) 1.04 ± 0.91 (14)
 Visit 2 (Week 8) 0.96 ± 1.70 (14) 0.36 ± 0.45 (11) 0.61 ± 0.56 (14)
 Change from Baseline to Week 8 0.11 ± 0.68 (14)
P = 0.792‡
−0.09 ± 0.66 (11)
P = 0.792‡
−0.43 ± 0.70 (14)
P =0.044‡
0. 175 0.069
Fatigue Score Before Walking
 Baseline (Week 0) 0.21 ± 0.54 (14) 0.50 ± 1.02 (11) 0.54 ± 0.93 (14)
 Visit 2 (Week 8) 0.25 ± 0.80 (14) 0.18 ± 0.60 (11) 0.39 ± 0.92 (14)
 Change from Baseline to Week 8 0.04 ± 0.95 (14)
P = 0.854‡
−0.32 ± 1.27 (11)
P = 0.461‡
−0.14 ± 0.57 (14)
P = 0.387‡
0. 853 0.893
Fatigue Score After Walking
 Baseline (Week 0) 0.64 ± 1.36 (14) 0.82 ± 1.03 (11) 0.82 ± 0.91 (14)
 Visit 2 (Week 8) 0.93 ± 1.25 (14) 0.45 ± 0.88 (11) 0.61 ± 0.86 (14)
 Change from Baseline to Week 8 0.29 ± 1.17 (14)
P = 0.394‡
−0.36 ± 1.38 (11)
P = 0.348‡
−0.21 ± 0.64 (14)
P = 0.266‡
0. 800 0.154
Change in Fatigue Score After Walking
 Baseline (Week 0) 0.43 ± 1.33 (14) 0.32 ± 0.64 (11) 0.29 ± 0.64 (14)
 Visit 2 (Week 8) 0.68 ± 1.05 (14) 0.273 ± 0.344 (11) 0.21 ± 0.26 (14)
 Change from Baseline to Week 8 0.25 ± 1.03 (14)
P = 0.341
−0.05 ± 0.65 (11)
P = 1.000‡
−0.07 ± 0.68 (14)
P = 0.660‡
0. 729 0.201
  1. N number, SD standard deviation
  2. ΔBetween-group comparisons for placebo and L-Carnitine were made using the Mann-Whitney U test
  3. ¤Between-group comparisons for placebo and L-Carnitine-Combination were made using the Mann-Whitney U test
  4. Within-group comparisons were made using the signed-rank test
  5. Probability values P ≤ 0.05 are statistically significant
  6. The bold data represents a significant P value (P>0.05)