Wang Y, Beydoun MA. The obesity epidemic in the United States–gender, age, socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and geographic characteristics: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Epidemiol Rev. 2007;29:6–28.
Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Curtin LR. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999–2008. JAMA. 2010;303:235–41.
Ruhl CE, Everhart JE. Epidemiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver. Clin Liver Dis. 2004;8:501–19.
Leroith D, Accili D. Mechanisms of disease: using genetically altered mice to study concepts of type 2 diabetes. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2008;4:164–72.
Najjar SM, Russo L. CEACAM1 loss links inflammation to insulin resistance in obesity and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Semin Immunopathol. 2014;36:55–71.
Ye R, Scherer PE. Adiponectin, driver or passenger on the road to insulin sensitivity? Mol Metab. 2013;2:133–41.
Bowman TA, Ramakrishnan SK, Kaw M, Lee SJ, Patel PR, Golla VK, et al. Caloric restriction reverses hepatic insulin resistance and steatosis in rats with low aerobic capacity. Endocrinology. 2010;151:5157–64.
Tjonna AE, Lee SJ, Rognmo O, Stolen TO, Bye A, Haram PM, et al. Aerobic interval training versus continuous moderate exercise as a treatment for the metabolic syndrome: a pilot study. Circulation. 2008;118:346–54.
Haram PM, Kemi OJ, Lee SJ, Bendheim MO, Al-Share QY, Waldum HL, et al. Aerobic interval training vs. continuous moderate exercise in the metabolic syndrome of rats artificially selected for low aerobic capacity. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;81:723–32.
Bellisle F, Drewnowski A. Intense sweeteners, energy intake and the control of body weight. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007;61:691–700.
Fagherazzi G, Vilier A, Saes Sartorelli D, Lajous M, Balkau B, Clavel-Chapelon F. Consumption of artificially and sugar-sweetened beverages and incident type 2 diabetes in the Etude Epidemiologique aupres des femmes de la Mutuelle Generale de l’Education Nationale-European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97:517–23.
Dragan S, Andrica F, Serban MC, Timar R. Polyphenols-rich natural products for treatment of diabetes. Curr Med Chem. 2015;22:14–22.
Wang Y, Ho CT. Polyphenolic chemistry of tea and coffee: a century of progress. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:8109–14.
Sato Y, Itagaki S, Kurokawa T, Ogura J, Kobayashi M, Hirano T, et al. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid. Int J Pharm. 2011;403:136–8.
Ma Y, Gao M, Liu D. Chlorogenic acid improves high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in mice. Pharm Res. 2015;32(4):1200–9. doi: 10.1007/s11095-014-1526-9. Epub 2014 Sep 24.
Jung UJ, Lee MK, Park YB, Jeon SM, Choi MS. Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant properties of caffeic acid in db/db mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006;318:476–83.
Johnston KL, Clifford MN, Morgan LM. Coffee acutely modifies gastrointestinal hormone secretion and glucose tolerance in humans: glycemic effects of chlorogenic acid and caffeine. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78:728–33.
Ong KW, Hsu A, Tan BK. Chlorogenic acid stimulates glucose transport in skeletal muscle via AMPK activation: a contributor to the beneficial effects of coffee on diabetes. PLoS One. 2012;7:e32718.
van Dam RM. Coffee and type 2 diabetes: from beans to beta-cells. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2006;16:69–77.
Mesarwi O, Polak J, Jun J, Polotsky VY. Sleep disorders and the development of insulin resistance and obesity. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2013;42:617–34.
Spiegel K, Leproult R, Van Cauter E. Impact of sleep debt on metabolic and endocrine function. Lancet. 1999;354:1435–9.
Wang ZQ, Yu Y, Zhang XH, Komorowski J. Chromium-insulin reduces insulin clearance and enhances insulin signaling by suppressing hepatic insulin-degrading enzyme and proteasome protein expression in KKAy mice. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2014;5:99.
Clee SM, Attie AD. The genetic landscape of type 2 diabetes in mice. Endocr Rev. 2007;28:48–83.
Jain SK, Croad JL, Velusamy T, Rains JL, Bull R. Chromium dinicocysteinate supplementation can lower blood glucose, CRP, MCP-1, ICAM-1, creatinine, apparently mediated by elevated blood vitamin C and adiponectin and inhibition of NFkappaB, Akt, and Glut-2 in livers of zucker diabetic fatty rats. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010;54:1371–80.
Shimoda H, Seki E, Aitani M. Inhibitory effect of green coffee bean extract on fat accumulation and body weight gain in mice. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2006;6:9.
Heinrich G, Ghosh S, Deangelis AM, Schroeder-Gloeckler JM, Patel PR, Castaneda TR, et al. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 2 controls energy balance and peripheral insulin action in mice. Gastroenterology. 2010;139:644–52.
Patel PR, Ramakrishnan SK, Kaw MK, Raphael CK, Ghosh S, Marino JS, et al. Increased metabolic rate and insulin sensitivity in male mice lacking the carcino-embryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 2. Diabetologia. 2012;55:763–72.
Bakker LEH, van Schinkel LD, Guigas B, Streefland TCM, Jonker JT, van Klinken JB, et al. A 5-day high-fat, high-calorie diet impairs insulin sensitivity in healthy, young South Asian men but not in Caucasian men. Diabetes. 2014;63:248–58.
Park SY, Cho YR, Kim HJ, Higashimori T, Danton C, Lee MK, et al. Unraveling the temporal pattern of diet-induced insulin resistance in individual organs and cardiac dysfunction in C57BL/6 mice. Diabetes. 2005;54:3530–40.
Murase T, Misawa K, Minegishi Y, Aoki M, Ominami H, Suzuki Y, et al. Coffee polyphenols suppress diet-induced body fat accumulation by downregulating SREBP-1c and related molecules in C57BL/6 J mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011;300:E122–133.
Li Kwok Cheong JD, Croft KD, Henry PD, Matthews V, Hodgson JM, Ward NC. Green coffee polyphenols do not attenuate features of the metabolic syndrome and improve endothelial function in mice fed a high fat diet. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2014;559:46–52.
Mubarak A, Hodgson JM, Considine MJ, Croft KD, Matthews VB. Supplementation of a high-fat diet with chlorogenic acid is associated with insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation in mice. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61:4371–8.
Selcuk MY, Aygen B, Dogukan A, Tuzcu Z, Akdemir F, Komorowski JR, et al. Chromium picolinate and chromium histidinate protects against renal dysfunction by modulation of NF-kappaB pathway in high-fat diet fed and Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2012;9:30.
Iqbal N, Cardillo S, Volger S, Bloedon LT, Anderson RA, Boston R, et al. Chromium picolinate does not improve key features of metabolic syndrome in obese nondiabetic adults. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2009;7:143–50.
Krol E, Krejpcio Z, Iwanik K. Supplementary chromium(III) propionate complex does not protect against insulin resistance in high-fat-fed rats. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2014;157:147–55.
Jain SK, Kahlon G, Morehead L, Dhawan R, Lieblong B, Stapleton T, et al. Effect of chromium dinicocysteinate supplementation on circulating levels of insulin, TNF-alpha, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic subjects: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012;56:1333–41.
Page KA, Chan O, Arora J, Belfort-Deaguiar R, Dzuira J, Roehmholdt B, et al. Effects of fructose vs glucose on regional cerebral blood flow in brain regions involved with appetite and reward pathways. JAMA. 2013;309:63–70.
Teff KL, Elliott SS, Tschop M, Kieffer TJ, Rader D, Heiman M, et al. Dietary fructose reduces circulating insulin and leptin, attenuates postprandial suppression of ghrelin, and increases triglycerides in women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:2963–72.
Rippe JM, Angelopoulos TJ. Sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, and fructose, their metabolism and potential health effects: what do we really know? Adv Nutr. 2013;4:236–45.
Akash MS, Rehman K, Chen S. Effects of coffee on type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutrition. 2014;30:755–63.
Hursel R, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Thermogenic ingredients and body weight regulation. Int J Obes (Lond). 2010;34:659–69.
Bermudez-Soto MJ, Larrosa M, Garcia-Cantalejo JM, Espin JC, Tomas-Barberan FA, Garcia-Conesa MT. Up-regulation of tumor suppressor carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 in human colon cancer Caco-2 cells following repetitive exposure to dietary levels of a polyphenol-rich chokeberry juice. J Nutr Biochem. 2007;18:259–71.
Poy MN, Yang Y, Rezaei K, Fernstrom MA, Lee AD, Kido Y, et al. CEACAM1 regulates insulin clearance in liver. Nat Genet. 2002;30:270–6.
Al-Share QY, DeAngelis AM, Lester SG, Bowman TA, Ramakrishnan SK, Abdallah SL, et al. Forced hepatic over-expression of CEACAM1 curtails diet-induced insulin resistance. Diabetes. 2015 May 13. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25972571.