- Open Access
Effect of high amylose maize starches on colonic fermentation and apoptotic response to DNA-damage in the colon of rats
© Le Leu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2009
- Received: 29 January 2009
- Accepted: 07 March 2009
- Published: 07 March 2009
We investigated in rats the effects of feeding different forms of high amylose maize starches (HAMS) rich in resistant starch (RS) to understand what the implications of RS heterogeneity might be for colonic biology, including innate cellular responses to DNA-damage.
A range of maize starches were compared: digestible cornstarch (Control), HYLON® VII, Hi-maize® 1043, Hi-maize® 240, Hi-maize® 260 and NOVELOSE® 330. Included in the comparison was Cellulose. End-points after 4 weeks included: pH, short chain fatty acids (SCFA) levels, colonic epithelial cell kinetics and apoptotic response to carcinogen 'azoxymethane' in the colonic epithelium.
The RS diets significantly increased SCFA and reduced pH in caecal content and faeces. Hi-maize 260 resulted in the highest butyrate concentrations. All RS diets prevented the mucosal atrophy as seen in the rats fed the Control diet. Epithelial cell turnover was increased in the Control and Cellulose groups compared to the Hi-maize 260, HYLON VII and NOVELOSE 330 groups (P < 0.01). The apoptotic response to azoxymethane was higher only in the Hi-maize 260 group compared to the Control group (P < 0.01). Butyrate correlated positively with the apoptotic response (P < 0.01).
The consumption of RS elicits a range of beneficial physiological and protective effects associated with the fermentation of RS. Increased production of butyrate seems a likely explanation by which RS enhances the apoptotic response to carcinogen-induced DNA damage which is consistent with the proposed role of this SCFA in promoting a normal cell phenotype and preventing the development of abnormal cell populations.
- Short Chain Fatty Acid
- Resistant Starch
- Apoptotic Response
- Total Dietary Fibre
Resistant starch (RS) is defined as a component of dietary starch that is not absorbed in the small intestine of healthy individuals and thus reaches the colon undigested, similar to dietary fibre . Evidence is mounting to suggest that RS is a protective agent against several serious gastrointestinal disorders  including that of colorectal cancer [3, 4]. The mechanism for protection may be associated with metabolic products of anaerobic bacterial fermentation of RS. Fermentation of RS produces short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) which lower luminal pH; increase bacterial biomass and faecal bulk; and modify the composition of the microbiota, especially by stimulating the growth of beneficial bacteria including bifidobacteria and lactobacilli . Butyrate, one of the principal colonic SCFA has generated the most interest and may be protective against colorectal cancer [6, 7]. Butyrate has been shown to be the primary energy source for the colonic epithelium ; it inhibits the growth of cancer cells in vitro and forces a more normal differentiated phenotype . In addition, it is a potent pro-apoptotic agent  as it removes genetically disordered cells which help to counteract the biological consequences of genomic instability. Colonic production of butyrate by fermentation is associated with reduced tumour mass in an animal model, provided that fermentation is active in distal colon . More recently in an experimental animal studies, RS feeding was associated with the generation of increased butyrate levels in the colon as well as protecting against carcinogen-induced colon tumourigenesis [11, 12].
Further clarification of the health benefits of RS is, however, made difficult by the fact that it is heterogeneous in nature with the many different forms varying in their physicochemistry, digestibility, fermentability and fibre content. Types of RS have been traditionally classified into four main types based upon structural considerations and bacterial fermentability . RS1 includes physically entrapped starch within whole plant cells and food matrices (e.g. coarsely milled grain). RS2 consists of native starch granules that are highly resistant to digestion by α-amylases (e.g. green banana, HAMS). RS3 comprises retrograded starches, formed when starchy foods are cooked and cooled. RS4 comprises chemically modified starches (e.g. esterified starches) where the modification interferes with the amylolytic activity of digestive enzymes. Apart from these structural differences, different sources of RS may vary according to proportion of nondigestible starch, dietary fibre content, starch granule size and other physico-chemical differences that might result in different levels of digestibility and fermentation patterns . This might lead to different luminal conditions and hence variations in epithelial biological responsiveness. It has also been recently shown that there can be an important synbiotic interaction with colonic microbiota resulting in altered epithelial response to carcinogen-induced genomic lesions in the colon . Because of the diversity and forms of RS they cannot be expected to all perform in the same manner physiologically . As a consequence, different forms of RS might vary considerably in their effects on colonic biology and the consequences of that for colonic disorders such as cancer.
The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of feeding high amylose maize starches (HAMS) that differed in their RS content, dietary fibre content and degree of processing on colonic fermentation and implications for colonic biology. We have explored their effects on luminal conditions, namely SCFA concentrations and pH, and the relationships to certain epithelial events potentially regulated by luminal conditions: specifically colonic epithelial proliferation and apoptotic response to a DNA-damaging agent. The study focused on RS2 and RS3 derived from HAMS and included native and hydrothermally (or heat-moisture) treated forms. Hydrothermal processing is a means of significantly increasing the dietary fibre content of HAMS. The starches examined were as follows: Hylon VII which is a RS2 type starch and is the base starch for the preparation of Hi-maize 240 and Hi-maize 260. Hi-maize 1043 is a RS2 type starch that has been hydrothermally prepared from HAMS, as reported by Bird et al. ; although made from a different base HAMS, the Hi-maize 1043 and Hi-maize 260 have been made using similar hydrothermal methodology. Novelose 330 which is a retrograded RS3 generated from the hydrolysed products of corn starch,  and has not been previously reported in terms of apoptotic response to a DNA-damaging agent.
Animals and diets
A total of 84 male Sprague-Dawley rats, 5 weeks of age, were obtained from the Animal Resource Centre, Perth, Western Australia. Animals were divided randomly into seven experimental groups of equal bodyweight and housed three per plastic cage in an animal holding room under controlled conditions of 22 ± 1°C (SE), 80 ± 5% humidity, and 12 h light/dark cycle. Animals were given free access to water and weighed weekly throughout the study. Rats were fed experimental diets for four weeks.
Treatment procedure, dietary fibre and resistant starch levels of the different RS forms1,2
RS amount (%)1
Total Dietary Fibre (%)2
Composition of experimental diets (g/100 g diet)1
After three weeks on experimental diets rats were housed temporarily in metabolic cages and faecal output was measured for 24 hours. Fresh faecal samples were collected from each rat during the last 3 d of the experimental period by gently handling the rats until they produced a faecal sample. For faecal pH, fresh faeces were homogenized in 3 volumes of saline and the pH recorded (TPB, digital pH meter, model 1852 mV). Fresh faeces were diluted in 3 volumes of internal standard solution (heptanoic acid, 1.68 mmol/L) and stored at -20°C for later analysis of SCFA concentrations.
On the final day of the experimental period, (after 4 weeks on the diet), each rat was administered a single i.p. injection of azoxymethane (AOM), 10 mg/kg body weight, (Sigma Chemical) to induce genomic damage and initiate damage-response events including apoptosis ; rats were killed by CO2-induced narcosis 6 h later, the time of maximal apoptotic response . The entire colon was rapidly removed and divided into proximal and distal portions; the limit of the proximal portion was defined by the "herring bone" pattern. These were flushed clean with ice-cold saline, and a segment (2 cm) was taken from the rectal end of the distal portion. This segment was placed in 10% buffered formalin for 24 h, then washed and stored in 70% ethanol. The caecum was excised, weighed, and a known weight of digesta placed in 3 volumes of saline for pH measurement; a known weight of digesta was also diluted in 3 volumes of internal standard solution (heptanoic acid, 1.68 mmol/L) and stored at -20°C for analysis of SCFA.
The Flinders University of South Australia Animal Welfare Committee approved all experimental procedures.
Apoptosis in colonic epithelium
Colon sections (0.5 cm × 0.5 cm) in 70% ethanol were cut from distal segments of the colon embedded in paraffin. Paraffin-embedded sections (5 μm) were stained with hematoxylin and evaluated under a light microscope for apoptotic cells. Apoptotic cells were identified in 20 randomly chosen intact crypts by cell shrinkage, presence of condensed chromatin and sharply delineated cell borders surrounded with a clear halo as reported previously . The percentage of apoptotic nuclei (apoptotic index) was calculated as the mean number of apoptotic cells/crypt column multiplied by 100. The length of each crypt was determined along with the position of apoptotic cells.
Cell proliferation in colonic epithelium
Proliferative activity of epithelial cells was measured using immunohistochemical staining with Ki-67 monoclonal antibody (PC-10 clone, Santa Cruz, USA). In brief, paraffin embedded sections were deparaffinized in xylene and rehydrated through graded ethanol solutions to distilled water. Antigen retrieval was carried out by heating sections in 0.1 M citrate buffer pH 6.5 for 1 hour in a pressure cooker. Endogenous peroxidase activity was quenched by incubation in 3% H2O2 in methanol for 5 minutes. Sections were than incubated overnight at room temperature with Ki-67 antibody diluted in 1:1000. Detection was by biotinylated secondary rabbit-anti-mouse polyclonal antibody in 1/200 (Dako) for 30 mins and avidin/biotinylated peroxidase complex (Signet Laboratories) incubating for 20 mins. Slides were visualized by incubating with 3'-diaminobenzamine substrate. Positive staining was noted by brown precipitate in the cell cytoplasm. In all cases, an independent observer unaware of the dietary treatments measured Ki-67 positive cells. Epithelial turnover was assessed as the Ki-67 positive cells per crypt column length.
SCFA including acetate, propionate and butyrate were determined in the caecal content and faeces of rats as described previously. 
Data are expressed as mean ± standard errors, and differences between means were analysed by one-way ANOVA. Differences were considered significant at P < 0.05. Statistical differences were then separated by Tukey multiple comparison test. The correlations among variables were analysed by Spearman's correlation test, a value of P < 0.05 was used as the criterion of significance. The statistical package SPSS version 14 software was used for all analyses.
Bodyweights and food intake
Effect of experimental diets on final bodyweight, food intake, faecal output, pH, caecal weight and caecal content weight1.
369 ± 4
353 ± 8
345 ± 10
345 ± 11
341 ± 9
366 ± 8
359 ± 4
Food intake (g/d)
17.9 ± 0.8bc
18.0 ± 0.5bc
15.5 ± 0.7a
15.8 ± 0.7ab
15.4 ± 0.7a
15.6 ± 0.5ab
19.0 ± 0.4c
Faecal Output (g/d)
0.5 ± 0.1a
1.7 ± 0.1b
1.7 ± 0.2b
1.9 ± 0.2b
1.7 ± 0.2b
2.2 ± 0.2b
3.2 ± 0.3c
7.4 ± 0.05d
7.1 ± 0.03c
5.7 ± 0.03ab
5.8 ± 0.05b
5.7 ± 0.04ab
5.8 ± 0.07b
5.5 ± 0.03a
7.5 ± 0.06c
7.2 ± 0.05b
5.6 ± 0.03a
5.6 ± 0.02a
5.7 ± 0.02a
5.7 ± 0.01a
5.5 ± 0.03a
Caecum weight (g)
0.60 ± 0.03ab
0.54 ± 0.02a
0.66 ± 0.03b
0.62 ± 0.04ab
0.66 ± 0.03ab
0.71 ± 0.04b
0.95 ± 0.04c
Caecal contents (g)
1.3 ± 0.05a
1.58 ± 0.08ab
1.50 ± 0.11ab
1.24 ± 0.05a
1.97 ± 0.06b
1.76 ± 0.09b
2.43 ± 0.19c
Faecal output was increased in the RS- and cellulose-fed rats compared to the rats fed the Control diet (P < 0.001). Forms of RS2 did not increase stool bulk as much as the source with RS3 (i.e. NOVELOSE 330); NOVELOSE 330 was associated with significantly increased faecal output compared to all RS2 treatment groups (P < 0.001) and the Cellulose group (Table 3).
The wet weight of caecal contents was lowest in the Control fed rats and highest in the NOVELOSE 330 (P < 0.001) fed rats, while all other diets showed intermediate weights. The caecal wall weight was significantly higher in the rats fed the NOVELOSE 330 diet (P < 0.001) compared to any other diet (Table 3).
Effect of the diets on fermentation patterns
The pH was significantly lower in both the caecum and faeces in the rats fed the different RS diets (P < 0.001) compared to rats fed a Control or Cellulose diet (Table 3).
Effect of experimental diets on SCFA concentrations in caecum and faeces1
44.7 ± 3.5a
40.0 ± 3.1a
62.8 ± 6.9ab
78.9 ± 9.4b
54.8 ± 5.8ab
71.0 ± 8.7b
56.5 ± 7.3ab
28.9 ± 2.5
26.2 ± 2.3
36.6 ± 4.7
41.4 ± 5.3
33.5 ± 4.3
31.4 ± 4.7
40.2 ± 5.7
10.7 ± 0.8a
8.1 ± 0.8a
9.5 ± 1.7a
22.3 ± 2.9c
12.9 ± 1.2ab
16.8 ± 2.2bc
10.2 ± 1.1a
5.1 ± 0.4a
4.4 ± 0.80a
15.1 ± 3.1bc
12.3 ± 1.7b
6.5 ± 1.1a
20.3 ± 3.0c
4.4 ± 0.8a
25.1 ± 3.1ab
19.5 ± 2.0a
40.5 ± 4.1bc
48.2 ± 5.4c
44.2 ± 7.9c
37.9 ± 2.9bc
35.2 ± 4.0abc
17.3 ± 2.0ab
14.4 ± 1.4a
24.0 ± 2.7bc
28.6 ± 3.6c
25.7 ± 2.2bc
19.5 ± 2.2abc
25.3 ± 3.2bc
5.0 ± 0.9a
3.7 ± 0.4a
4.0 ± 0.8a
11.1 ± 1.4b
4.9 ± 0.6a
5.9 ± 0.5a
5.9 ± 1.0a
2.7 ± 0.4a
1.8 ± 0.2a
11.5 ± 4.0b
6.5 ± 0.9ab
3.8 ± 1.3a
11.0 ± 2.6b
2.5 ± 0.5a
Caecal total SCFA concentration was highest in rats fed the Hi-maize 1043 and Hi-maize 260 and lowest in those fed the Control fed and cellulose fed rats. Caecal butyrate concentration varied widely between diets and highest levels were observed with the RS2 starches especially HYLON VII and Hi-maize 260; these rats showed a four-fold increase compared to the Control rats. No significant differences were seen between diets for caecal acetate concentration. Caecal propionate concentration was the highest in the Hi-maize 1043 fed rats. Clearly, ratios between SCFA varied between RS starch.
In the faeces, highest total SCFA levels were seen in rats fed Hi-maize 240 and Hi-maize 1043. Butyrate concentration in the faeces, as in caecal digesta, was significantly elevated by the HYLON VII and Hi-maize 260 diets compared to the Control diet. Acetate concentration in the faeces was significantly higher in the Hi-Maize 1043 fed rats compared to the Control fed rats. The Hi-maize 1043 diet was the only diet to significantly elevate propionate concentration.
By considering concentrations in caecal digesta and faeces, it is possible to determine which diets maintained higher concentrations of butyrate along the length of the colon. HYLON VII and Hi-maize 260 stood out significantly from the other diets in this respect.
Effects of diet on apoptosis and epithelial kinetics in the distal colon
Epithelial turnover is assessed from the Ki-67 labelling index and was significantly affected by the different experimental diets (Fig. 1B). The Control and Cellulose groups had significantly higher cell turnover than did Hi-Maize 260, HYLON VII and NOVELOSE 330 groups. Interestingly, cell mass as reflected in crypt column height did not parallel cell turnover. This implies a difference in epithelial proliferation rates. Therefore, we assessed crypt cell proliferation rates from counts of Ki-67-labelled cells per crypt column, as shown in Fig 1C. The Cellulose group had significantly higher Ki-67 counts than all other dietary groups (P < 0.01). Whereas the NOVELOSE 330 group had significantly lower Ki-67 counts than Control, Cellulose, Hi-maize 1043 and Hi-maize 240 groups (P < 0.05).
The apoptotic response to genotoxic damage (AI) in the distal colon was significantly affected by diet (Fig. 1D). The apoptotic response was significantly increased in the Hi-maize 260 fed rats (P < 0.01) when compared to the Control fed rats.
Relationships between luminal events and epithelial responses
Correlations between apoptotic index, cell turnover, Ki-67 counts and crypt height in distal colon and selected caecal and faecal parameters1
Crypt column height
Total SCFA (μmol/g)
Cell turnover (Ki-67 labelling index) was negatively correlated with caecal total SCFA (r = -0.38, P = 0.005), caecal acetate (r = -031, P = 0.019) and caecal butyrate (r = -0.325, P < 0.001) but positively correlated with caecal pH (r = 0.63, P < 0.001) and faecal pH (r = 0.61, P < 0.001).
Ki-67-lableld cell counts were negatively correlated with caecal total SCFA (r = -0.31, P = 0.02), caecal butyrate (r = -0.30, P = 0.03), faecal acetate (r = -0.27, P = 0.05), but positively correlated with caecal pH (r = 0.57, P < 0.001) and faecal pH (r = 0.54, P < 0.001).
No significant correlations were observed between crypt column height and any of the luminal variables.
Our findings show that fermentation-dependent luminal events do differ between forms of HAMS, even between starches of the same physico-chemical type, namely RS2. The findings also show that epithelial events are dependent on RS-induced changes in the luminal environment. These significant consequences for epithelial biology might be relevant to risk for colorectal disease including neoplasia.
Increased fermentation, reflected in lowered pH and increased concentrations of SCFA in the digesta, has previously been reported with RS in rats [20, 21], pigs  and humans . We found high concentrations of SCFA, particularly butyrate with selected RS forms (i.e. Hi-maize 260 and HYLON VII); furthermore both of these maintained the highest butyrate levels along the length of the colon. We have previously shown that maintenance of active fermentation along the length of the colon, including high concentrations of butyrate, is significant in protecting against colorectal cancer development in animal models where, as in humans, cancers predominate in the distal colon [10, 11, 22].
Plausible explanations that could account for maintenance of high butyrate levels throughout the colon include the RS type, RS amount and/or the dietary fibre content of individual sources of RS and the degree of treatment (specifically hydrothermal treatment). Unfortunately, the present study was unable explain what the critical characteristic of HAMS was that maintained high butyrate levels. It did not appear to be dietary fibre as Hi-maize 260 and HYLON VII which were the best diets for butyrate production are both RS2-type starches, contain similar amounts of RS (46% and 48% respectively)  yet the total dietary fibre levels are quite different (60% and 18% respectively) . The hydrothermal treatment also does not seem to have significantly improved fermentation, because HYLON VII is the base starch for the hydrothermal preparation of Hi-maize 260, and it was both of these RS forms that performed the best in terms of SCFA production including butyrate. Quite significant differences in effects on butyrate production were observed between the different RS2-type starches, however, on balance the RS2-type starches tended to perform much better than the single RS3-type starch (ie. Novelose 330). Other factors not measured in the current study that might account for the higher butyrate production could be related to alterations in the colonic microbiota. Certain dietary carbohydrates have been shown to have the capacity to stimulate the growth of particular butyrate producing bacteria directly, or indirectly through stimulation of non-butyrate producing bacteria via metabolic cross-feeding 
Butyrate, the physiologically most important SCFA, is produced by anaerobic fermentation of carbohydrate and other substrates in the colonic lumen and is considered to be protective against CRC . In addition to our rodent studies linking butyrate to protection in rodent models [10, 11, 22] others have also shown that high butyrate producing substrates  and delivery of butyrate directly to the distal colonic mucosa have been linked to protection against the initial stages of colon carcinogenesis . Butyrate production has been also been linked to reversing the genetic damage and loss of mucosal barrier in rats induced by feeding higher protein diets [28, 29]. In addition to these anti-carcinogenic effects butyrate may also exert anti-inflammatory effects in vivo [30, 31].
Other luminal consequences of fermentation were also significantly altered by feeding these HAMS. A lower pH throughout the large bowel was observed. An acidified colon is associated with a decreases risk for CRC cancer . Lower pH values are believed to prevent the overgrowth of pH-sensitive pathogenic bacteria and lower the production of potentially harmful toxic or carcinogenic products in the colon, including secondary bile acids and protein fermentation products (ammonia and phenols) [2, 33]. Faecal output was increased by feeding cellulose and all the RS forms. The RS3 'NOVELOSE 330' was the most effective diet at increasing large bowel digesta weight and faecal output; this may be a characteristic of being a retrograded starch.
Luminal events are clearly linked to changes in epithelial biology. Apoptosis is an important innate cellular event for protection against the development of colorectal cancer. This includes removal of cells with genomic instability that have developed during oncogenesis  and deletion of cells suffering DNA insult from genotoxic agents such as carcinogens . Enhancement of apoptosis during initiation events increases elimination of mutated cells that might otherwise progress to malignancy  and defective apoptotic response is associated with increased risk . In the present study we have examined the relationship between butyrate and the apoptotic response to carcinogen by Spearman correlation procedures using data from individual animals performed regardless of dietary group. We found that butyrate concentration in both the caecum and faeces was positively correlated with AOM-induced apoptosis in the distal colon. This is consistent with earlier reports and confirms an important facilitatory role of butyrate for apoptosis in epithelial homeostasis [18, 20]. Production of butyrate by fermentation of RS seems a likely explanation by which RS enhances the apoptotic response to carcinogen-induced genomic lesions. The present study showed that the apoptotic response to the carcinogen was significantly higher in the Hi-maize 260 group compared to the Control group, however Hi-maize 260 was not significantly different from the other RS containing groups. It appears that neither the degree of processing or dietary fibre content was directly related to the apoptotic response rather it was butyrate levels that predicted the apoptotic response
Colonic cell mass is dependent on the presence of RS or dietary fibre as crypt atrophy was observed in the rats fed a diet deprived of RS and dietary fibre. This effect is consistent with our previous studies [38, 39] and that of others [40, 41]. All of the RS diets (ie. both RS2 and RS3) and the Cellulose diet reversed the atrophy which was observed with the fibre/RS free Control diet. Fermentative production of SCFA is considered to have a trophic affect on the colonic epithelium , in the present study cellulose reversed the colonic atrophy independent of SCFA production. Reversal of atrophy by a non-fermentable fibre such as this cellulose is not exactly the same mechanism as with RS, however, because cell turnover and proliferation were affected somewhat differently between cellulose and the RS forms used. Our results also showed reduced colonic cell proliferation (as measured by Ki-67 labelling index) in the rats fed any of the RS containing diets. Increased cell turnover may enhance the risk of mutations which can lead to an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer . Similar reductions in cell proliferation have also been observed in rats fed fermentative substrates like RS [12, 16, 28] and the carbohydrate oligofructose . It is likely that the increased SCFA resulting from fermentation of starch in the colon contributed to the observed effects on colonic epithelial proliferation.
In conclusion, the present results show that consumption of high amylose maize starches which are rich sources of RS elicit a range of effects in the luminal environment and epithelial biology of the large bowel of rats. These effects differ significantly between different forms of RS and are not necessarily consistent either within a specific physico-chemical type (namely RS2) nor are they obviously predictable from the known characteristic of a RS. On the other hand, generation of high concentrations of distal colonic butyrate is associated with reduced cancer risk, particularly in experimental models and with facilitation of the epithelial apoptotic response to genomic damage. As a consequence, faecal butyrate concentrations might be a useful biomarker of risk for CRC and might provide more information than attempts to ascertain types and amount of RS in the diet (and fibre for that matter). This has implications for human epidemiological and interventional studies trying to further explore the usefulness of RS for protection against CRC. Predicting benefit from apparent dietary composition might not be useful. Furthermore, designing specific interventions with an RS might require a careful consideration of its impact on fermentation events including butyrate in the distal colon.
We thank Jean Mcshane and Olga Pennino for histological analysis and animal samples. Financial support for this research was received from National Starch and Food Innovation.
- Englyst HN, Kingman SM, Cummings JH: Classification and measurement of nutritionally important starch fractions. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1992, 46 (Suppl 2): S33-50.Google Scholar
- Topping DL, Clifton PM: Short-chain fatty acids and human colonic function: roles of resistant starch and nonstarch polysaccharides. Physiol Rev. 2001, 81: 1031-1064.Google Scholar
- Young GP, Le Leu RK: Resistant starch and colorectal neoplasia. J AOAC Int. 2004, 87: 775-786.Google Scholar
- Cassidy A, Bingham SA, Cummings JH: Starch intake and colorectal cancer risk: an international comparison. Br J Cancer. 1994, 69: 937-942.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Le Leu RK, Brown IL, Hu Y, Bird AR, Jackson M, Esterman A, Young GP: A synbiotic combination of resistant starch and Bifidobacterium lactis facilitates apoptotic deletion of carcinogen-damaged cells in rat colon. J Nutr. 2005, 135: 996-1001.Google Scholar
- Whitehead RH, Young GP, Bhathal PS: Effects of short chain fatty acids on a new human colon carcinoma cell line (LIM1215). Gut. 1986, 27: 1457-1463. 10.1136/gut.27.12.1457.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Young GP, Gibson PR, eds: Butyrate and the human cancer cell. 1995, Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
- Roediger WE: Utilization of nutrients by isolated epithelial cells of the rat colon. Gastroenterology. 1982, 83: 424-429.Google Scholar
- Medina V, Edmonds B, Young GP, James R, Appleton S, Zalewski PD: Induction of caspase-3 protease activity and apoptosis by butyrate and trichostatin A (inhibitors of histone deacetylase): dependence on protein synthesis and synergy with a mitochondrial/cytochrome c-dependent pathway. Cancer Res. 1997, 57: 3697-3707.Google Scholar
- McIntyre A, Gibson PR, Young GP: Butyrate production from dietary fibre and protection against large bowel cancer in a rat model. Gut. 1993, 34: 386-391. 10.1136/gut.34.3.386.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Le Leu RK, Brown IL, Hu Y, Morita T, Esterman A, Young GP: Effect of dietary resistant starch and protein on colonic fermentation and intestinal tumourigenesis in rats. Carcinogenesis. 2007, 28: 240-245. 10.1093/carcin/bgl245.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Le Leu RK, Brown IL, Hu Y, Esterman A, Young GP: Suppression of azoxymethane-induced colon cancer development in rats by dietary resistant starch. Cancer Biol Ther. 2007, 6 (10): 1621-1626.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Champ MM: Physiological aspects of resistant starch and in vivo measurements. J AOAC Int. 2004, 87: 749-755.Google Scholar
- Brown IMKaME: Hi-maize™: new directions in starch technology and nutrition. Food Australia. 1995, 47: 272-275.Google Scholar
- Bird AR, Vuaran M, Brown I, Topping DL: Two high-amylose maize starches with different amounts of resistant starch vary in their effects on fermentation, tissue and digesta mass accretion, and bacterial populations in the large bowel of pigs. Br J Nutr. 2007, 97: 134-144. 10.1017/S0007114507250433.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jacobasch G, Dongowski G, Schmiedl D, Muller-Schmehl K: Hydrothermal treatment of Novelose 330 results in high yield of resistant starch type 3 with beneficial prebiotic properties and decreased secondary bile acid formation in rats. Br J Nutr. 2006, 95: 1063-1074. 10.1079/BJN20061713.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- AIN: Report of the American Institute of Nurtition ad hoc Committee on Standards for Nutritional Studies. J Nutr. 1977, 107: 1340-1348.Google Scholar
- Le Leu RK, Hu Y, Young GP: Effects of resistant starch and nonstarch polysaccharides on colonic luminal environment and genotoxin-induced apoptosis in the rat. Carcinogenesis. 2002, 23: 713-719. 10.1093/carcin/23.5.713.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hu Y, Martin J, Le Leu R, Young GP: The colonic response to genotoxic carcinogens in the rat: regulation by dietary fibre. Carcinogenesis. 2002, 23: 1131-1137. 10.1093/carcin/23.7.1131.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Le Leu RK, Brown IL, Hu Y, Young GP: Effect of resistant starch on genotoxin-induced apoptosis, colonic epithelium, and lumenal contents in rats. Carcinogenesis. 2003, 24: 1347-1352. 10.1093/carcin/bgg098.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ferguson LR, Tasman_Jones C, Englyst H, Harris PJ: Comparative effects of three resistant starch preparations on transit time and short-chain fatty acid production in rats. Nutr Cancer. 2000, 36: 230-237. 10.1207/S15327914NC3602_13.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- McIntosh GH, Le Leu RK, Royle PJ, Young GP: A comparative study of the influence of differing barley brans on DMH-induced intestinal tumours in male Sprague-Dawley rats. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1996, 11: 113-119. 10.1111/j.1440-1746.1996.tb00046.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- McCleary BV, Rossiter P: Measurement of novel dietary fibers. J AOAC Int. 2004, 87: 707-717.Google Scholar
- Louis P, Scott KP, Duncan SH, Flint HJ: Understanding the effects of diet on bacterial metabolism in the large intestine. J Appl Microbiol. 2007, 102: 1197-1208. 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2007.03322.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sengupta S, Muir JG, Gibson PR: Does butyrate protect from colorectal cancer?. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006, 21: 209-218. 10.1111/j.1440-1746.2006.04213.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Perrin P, Pierre F, Patry Y, Champ M, Berreur M, Pradal G, Bornet F, Meflah K, Menanteau J: Only fibres promoting a stable butyrate producing colonic ecosystem decrease the rate of aberrant crypt foci in rats. Gut. 2001, 48: 53-61. 10.1136/gut.48.1.53.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wong CS, Sengupta S, Tjandra JJ, Gibson PR: The influence of specific luminal factors on the colonic epithelium: high-dose butyrate and physical changes suppress early carcinogenic events in rats. Dis Colon Rectum. 2005, 48: 549-559. 10.1007/s10350-004-0810-x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Toden S, Bird AR, Topping DL, Conlon MA: Resistant starch prevents colonic DNA damage induced by high dietary cooked red meat or casein in rats. Cancer Biol Ther. 2006, 5: 267-272.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Toden S, Bird AR, Topping DL, Conlon MA: Dose-Dependent Reduction of Dietary Protein-Induced Colonocyte DNA Damage by Resistant Starch in Rats Correlates More Highly with Caecal Butyrate than with Other Short Chain Fatty Acids. Cancer Biol Ther. 2007, 6:Google Scholar
- Song M, Xia B, Li J: Effects of topical treatment of sodium butyrate and 5-aminosalicylic acid on expression of trefoil factor 3, interleukin 1beta, and nuclear factor kappaB in trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid induced colitis in rats. Postgrad Med J. 2006, 82: 130-135. 10.1136/pgmj.2005.037945.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hamer HM, Jonkers D, Venema K, Vanhoutvin S, Troost FJ, Brummer RJ: Review article: the role of butyrate on colonic function. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2008, 27: 104-119.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Thornton JR: High colonic pH promotes colorectal cancer. Lancet. 1981, 1: 1081-1083. 10.1016/S0140-6736(81)92244-3.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Birkett A, Muir J, Phillips J, Jones G, O'Dea K: Resistant starch lowers fecal concentrations of ammonia and phenols in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996, 63: 766-772.Google Scholar
- Thompson CB: Apoptosis in the pathogenesis and treatment of disease. Science. 1995, 267: 1456-1462. 10.1126/science.7878464.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Potten CS, Grant HK: The relationship between ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis and stem cells in the small and large intestine. Br J Cancer. 1998, 78: 993-1003.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Young GP, Hu Y, Le Leu RK, Nyskohus L: Dietary fibre and colorectal cancer: A model for environment – gene interactions. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2005, 49: 571-584. 10.1002/mnfr.200500026.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hu Y, Le Leu RK, Young GP: Defective acute apoptotic response to genotoxic carcinogen in small intestine of APC(Min/+) mice is restored by sulindac. Cancer Lett. 2007, 248: 234-244. 10.1016/j.canlet.2006.07.009.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Le Leu RK, Young GP: Fermentation of Starch and Protein in the Colon: Implications for Genomic Instability. Cancer Biol Ther. 2007, 6: 259-260.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Le Leu RK, Young GP: Fermentation of starch and protein in the colon: implications for genomic instability. Cancer Biol Ther. 2007, 6: 259-260.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wong CS, Gibson PR: The trophic effect of dietary fibre is not associated with a change in total crypt number in the distal colon of rats. Carcinogenesis. 2003, 24: 343-348. 10.1093/carcin/24.2.343.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Folino M, McIntyre A, Young GP: Dietary fibers differ in their effects on large bowel epithelial proliferation and fecal fermentation-dependent events in rats. J Nutr. 1995, 125: 1521-1528.Google Scholar
- Vogelstein B, Fearon ER, Hamilton SR, Kern SE, Preisinger AC, Leppert M, Nakamura Y, White R, Smits AM, Bos JL: Genetic alterations during colorectal-tumor development. N Engl J Med. 1988, 319: 525-532.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jacobsen H, Poulsen M, Ove Dragsted L, Ravn-Haren G, Meyer O, Hvid Lindecrona R: Carbohydrate digestibility predicts colon carcinogenesis in azoxymethane-treated rats. Nutr Cancer. 2006, 55: 163-170. 10.1207/s15327914nc5502_7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.