Bray GA: Medical consequences of obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004, 89: 2583-2589. 10.1210/jc.2004-0535.
Després JP, Lemieux I, Bergeron J, Pibarot P, Mathieu P, Larose E, Rodés-Cabau J, Bertrand OF, Poirier P: Abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome: contribution to global cardio-metabolic risk. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008, 28: 1039-1049. 10.1161/ATVBAHA.107.159228.
Third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP): Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) Final Report. Circulation. 2002, 106: 3143-3421.
Kahn HS, Valdez R: Metabolic risks identified by the combination of enlarged waist and elevated triacylglycerol concentration. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003, 78: 928-934.
Bray GA, Jablonski KA, Fujimoto WY, Barrett-Connor E, Haffner S, Hanson RL, Hill JO, Hubbard V, Kriska A, Stamm E, Pi-Sunyer FX, Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group: Relation of central adiposity and body mass index to the development of diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008, 87: 1212-1218.
Demerath EW, Reed D, Rogers N, Sun SS, Lee M, Choh AC, Couch W, Czerwinski SA, Chumlea WC, Siervogel RM, Towne B: Visceral adiposity and its anatomical distribution as predictors of the metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic risk factor levels. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008, 88: 1263-1271.
Jacobs EJ, Newton CC, Wang Y, Patel AV, McCullough ML, Campbell PT, Thun MJ, Gapstur SM: Waist circumference and all-cause mortality in a large US cohort. Arch Intern Med. 2010, 170: 1293-1301. 10.1001/archinternmed.2010.201.
Snijder MB, Dekker JM, Visser M, Bouter LM, Stehouwer CDA, Kostense PJ, Yudkin JS, Heine RJ, Nijpels G, Seidell JC: Association of hip and thigh circumferences independent of waist circumference with the incidence of type 2 diabetes: the Hoorn Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003, 77: 1192-1197.
Park HS, Lee K: Greater beneficial effects of visceral fat reduction compared with subcutaneous fat reduction on parameters of the metabolic syndrome: a study of weight reduction programmes in subjects with visceral and subcutaneous obesity. Diabet Med. 2005, 22: 266-272. 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2004.01395.x.
Lee JW, Lee HR, Shim JY, Im JA, Lee DC: Abdominal visceral fat reduction is associated with favorable changes of serum retinol binding protein-4 in nondiabetic subjects. Endocr J. 2008, 55: 811-818. 10.1507/endocrj.K08E-030.
Björntorp P: Do stress reactions cause abdominal obesity and comorbidities?. Obesity Rev. 2001, 2: 73-86. 10.1046/j.1467-789x.2001.00027.x.
Ard JD, Coffman CJ, Lin PH, Svetkey LP: One-year follow-up study of blood pressure and dietary patterns in dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH)-sodium participants. Am J Hypertens. 2004, 17: 1156-1162. 10.1016/j.amjhyper.2004.07.005.
Taubert D, Roesen R, Lehmann C, Jung N, Schömig E: Effects of low habitual cocoa intake on blood pressure and bioactive nitric oxide: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2007, 298: 49-60. 10.1001/jama.298.1.49.
Ashley JM, St Jeor ST, Perumean-Chaney S, Schrage J, Bovee V: Meal replacements in weight intervention. Obes Res. 2001, 9 (Suppl 4): 312S-320S.
Flechtner-Mors M, Ditschuneit HH, Johnson TD, Suchard MA, Adler G: Metabolic and weight loss effects of long-term dietary intervention in obese patients: four-year results. Obes Res. 2000, 8: 399-402. 10.1038/oby.2000.48.
Heymsfield SB, van Mierlo CAJ, van der Knaap HCM, Heo M, Frier HI: Weight management using a meal replacement strategy: meta and pooling analysis from six studies. Int J Obes. 2003, 27: 537-549. 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802258.
Kyle UG, Bosaeus I, De Lorenzo AD, Deurenberg P, Elia M, Gómez JM, Heitmann BL, Kent-Smith L, Melchior JC, Pirlich M, Scharfetter H, Schols AMWJ, Pichard C: Bioelectrical impedance analysis--part II: utilization in clinical practice. Clin Nutr. 2004, 23: 1430-1453. 10.1016/j.clnu.2004.09.012.
LaMonte MJ, Ainsworth BE, DuBose KD, Grandjean PW, Davis PG, Yanowitz FG, Durstine JL: The hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype among women. Atherosclerosis. 2003, 171: 123-130. 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2003.07.008.
Frankenfield DC, Muth ER, Rowe WA: The Harris-Benedict studies of human basal metabolism: history and limitations. J Am Diet Assoc. 1998, 98: 439-445. 10.1016/S0002-8223(98)00100-X.
Noakes M, Foster PR, Keogh JB, Clifton PM: Meal replacements are as effective as structured weight-loss diets for treating obesity in adults with features of metabolic syndrome. J Nutr. 2004, 134: 1894-1899.
König D, Deibert P, Frey I, Landmann U, Berg A: Effect of meal replacement on metabolic risk factors in overweight and obese subjects. Ann Nutr Metab. 2008, 52: 74-78. 10.1159/000119416.
Klein S, Sheard NF, Pi-Sunyer X, Daly A, Wylie-Rosett J, Kulkarni K, Clark NG: Weight management through lifestyle modification for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes: rationale and strategies: A statement of the American Diabetes Association, the North American Association for the Study of Obesity, and the American Society for Clinical Nutrition. Diabetes Care. 2004, 27: 2067-2073. 10.2337/diacare.27.8.2067.
Lofgren I, Herron K, Zern T, West K, Patalay M, Shachter NS, Koo SI, Fernandez ML: Waist circumference is a better predictor than body mass index of coronary heart disease risk in overweight premenopausal women. J Nutr. 2004, 134: 1071-1076.
Tankó LB, Bagger YZ, Qin G, Alexandersen P, Larsen PJ, Christiansen C: Enlarged waist combined with elevated triglycerides is a strong predictor of accelerated atherogenesis and related cardiovascular mortality in postmenopausal women. Circulation. 2005, 111: 1883-1890. 10.1161/01.CIR.0000161801.65408.8D.
Schneider HJ, Friedrich N, Klotsche J, Pieper L, Nauck M, John U, Dörr M, Felix S, Lehnert H, Pittrow D, Silber S, Völzke H, Stalla GK, Wallaschofski H, Wittchen HU: The predictive value of different measures of obesity for incident cardiovascular events and mortality. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010, 95: 1777-1785. 10.1210/jc.2009-1584.
Ashwell M, Hsieh SD: Six reasons why the waist-to-height ratio is a rapid and effective global indicator for health risks of obesity and how its use could simplify the international public health message on obesity. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2005, 56: 303-307. 10.1080/09637480500195066.
Lemieux I, Pascot A, Couillard C, Lamarche B, Tchernof A, Alméras N, Bergeron J, Gaudet D, Tremblay G, Prud'homme D, Nadeau A, Despres JP: Hypertriglyceridemic waist: A marker of the atherogenic metabolic triad (hyperinsulinemia; hyperapolipoprotein B; small, dense LDL) in men?. Circulation. 2000, 102: 179-184.
National Institutes of Health: Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults - the evidence report. 1998, NIH Pub No 98-4083. Bethesda, MD: National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, 228-
National Institutes of Health: Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults - the evidence report. Obesity Res. 1998, 6 (Suppl 2): 51-209.
Whitfield JB: Gamma glutamyl transferase. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 2001, 38: 263-355. 10.1080/20014091084227.
Lee DH, Blomhoff R, Jacobs DR: Is serum gamma glutamyltransferase a marker of oxidative stress?. Free Radic Res. 2004, 38: 535-539. 10.1080/10715760410001694026.
Sabanayagam C, Shankar A, Li J, Pollard C, Ducatman A: Serum gamma-glutamyl transferase level and diabetes mellitus among US adults. Eur J Epidemiol. 2009, 24: 369-373. 10.1007/s10654-009-9346-7.
Stanger O, Weger M: Interactions of homocysteine, nitric oxide, folate and radicals in the progressively damaged endothelium. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2003, 41: 1444-1454. 10.1515/CCLM.2003.222.